My quickest script writing session ever!

A few weeks ago, I was approached by a colleague to collaborate on a quickie corporate video. Even before the first meeting with the client, we could feel the deadline approaching like a tropical storm. So speed was key. But we couldn’t compromise production values.

Initial client meetings can be nebulous. You listen to what the client wants from the video, you ask questions to narrow the options and focus the goals, but you often leave that meeting with a yellow pad full of vague possible approaches, to be sorted through later. We couldn’t afford that.

By the time this gathering was drawing to a close, we had defined the audience and purpose: it would be shown internally to employees around the world and would introduce them to the company’s commitment to philanthropy. We knew the length—no more than two and a half minutes—and some of the key elements. It was Friday. We agreed that I would start writing the script on Monday.

And then the scriptwriting muse whispered in my ear: “No, write a draft now, immediately, before leaving the building.” “Seriously?” I answered, “I’ve never done that. I need time to contemplate.” “No, you don’t. No thinking needed … just write.”

Giving the muse the benefit of the doubt (which you should almost always do) I asked one member of the client’s team to stay, because she knew the content and I sure didn’t. Luckily for me, she agreed. I took a script template from a handy folder on my MacBook Pro and jumped right in. She was on the other side of the conference room table, so we started a Skype screen sharing session to be on the same page—literally.

BTW, if you’d like to download my tried-and-true script template to use on your own videos, right-click here. One of the options that pop up should allow you to download the file.

We’d agreed that there should be about 45 seconds of narration in this video. The rest of the time would be filled with pre-existing interview bites from philanthropic projects around the world. We didn’t know yet what these would be, so as the client and I crafted voiceover copy line by line, we simply filled in a bunch of scenes with the words “[insert sound bite(s)]”

The point is that after only a half hour or forty-five minutes we had a complete first draft script, albeit with holes for interview bites. The client had contributed facts and company messages, and I had contributed script-writing experience and savvy.  The cool thing was that the client could take this instant script and distribute it to her colleagues right away for comments and approvals.

Amazingly, the narration in the final script turned out to be really close to the draft we had cobbled together in well under an hour.

If you’d like to look at that first draft, right-click here. One of the options that pop up should allow you to download the file. (I’ve changed names and identifying features, so that you won’t be able to tell who the client was.)

Oh, I almost forgot to mention: knocking out the first draft this way was really fun!

Netflix and the adaptive sin of impatience

Close-up of eyes with impatient lookImpatience is a sin. When I stand at the Bank of America ATM, waiting and waiting and waiting for the contraption to digest a fistful of checks, steam starts rising from my scalp. As I inch along Route 95 because a lane is closed for repair, but there’s not a workman in sight, catecholamines spurt into my bloodstream. Impatience.  It’s a sin because it’s nasty, it nicks at the soul, and it does no good to anyone.

Netflix logoOr does it? Maybe it does some good. Maybe impatience is adaptive. In this Darwinian world the rule is, famously, adapt or die … or at least watch someone steal your lunch. Why am I thinking these terribly profound thoughts? Why, Netflix, of course. Netflix streaming, to be more precise. Though I am patient enough, or cheap enough, to choose free shipping and wait several days for my Amazon packages to arrive, when I subscribed to Netflix, I couldn’t bear the idea of waiting for DVDs when there was an alternative. Streaming. I point the clicker at my trusty Roku box and, seconds later, I’m watching millions of pixels doing their high definition dance on my 46-inch Samsung screen.

(More about the  ragpicker’s choice of videos you get with Netflix streaming, as opposed to Netflix DVDs, below. For now, the subject is still impatience.)

smart key for a carBecause we Americans will do almost anything to make our lives more convenient, impatience may be transforming into a virtue, at least for entrepreneurs. It takes an eternal seven seconds to reach into your pocket, haul out your car key, insert it into the door lock, twist, pull the door open, slide the key into the ignition and start the car. How tedious! So somebody invents a remote control to unlock the car. Then somebody raises the ante by inventing a “smart key” you can keep in your pocket. Every time you use it, it effectively lengthens your life by seven seconds. Wow!

"Doc Martin" Netflix coverThat’s what I love about Netflix streaming. It’s effortless. Not only are you spared a trip to the video store (remember them?), you don’t have to chart your viewing course a couple of days in advance. Spares wear and tear on executive functions of your brain. Though the instant watch list is dismal when it comes to semi-recent narrative films, there’s a bunch of good docs, like Page One, The Art of the Steal and Theater of War. When my sister-in-law mentions the Brit-com series Doc Martin,  after a few clicks on the remote, my wife and I become mildly addicted.

Frame from "Charlie bit my finger - again!"The adaptive sin of impatience has always pointed the way to online video’s future, and it will continue to do so. Impatience has led to shorter and shorter videos. The YouTube classic, “Charlie bit my finger – again!” viewed by over 423, 000,000 short-attention-span folks (like me), is just 56 seconds long. To sample the conventional wisdom on this subject, google How long should online videos be? and you’ll soon see that nobody advises clients to make long videos. The graph shows a curve as steep as a ski jump of  viewers dropping off after just a minute or so.

Netflix streaming illuminates the future of viewing, but Netflix itself may not be the future of viewing unless they get their act together … and soon. When I search their website for a narrative film I want to see, almost without exception the Netflix gremlins tell me that my film “is not available to watch instantly.” Oh yeah, I can watch it on DVD by clicking on a single button … and upping my monthly bill by $7.99. It’s incredibly annoying, and has caused countless Netflixters to abandon ship. DVDs were developed more than 15 years ago. Those disks still work pretty well, but they’ll soon be a legacy technology.

Impatience rules. I’ve heard that Being Elmo is a charming doc. Let’s see, do I want to check it out right away, or do I want to wait for the mail carrier to arrive a couple of days from now? Seems like a no-brainer. Let’s see how long it takes for the pleasure to arrive in my family room once I put Being Elmo on my Instant Queue. Here, click along with me:

As always, I welcome your comments.


iMovie ’11–maybe the best 15 bucks you’ll ever spend!

Avid logoFinal Cut Pro logoNote: This post is obsolete. iMovie is now free and better than ever. I’ve edited video with Avid and Final Cut Pro, and you can, too. But these are complex, multi-layered, nuanced applications. Not only do you (or somebody who’s hiring you) have to fork over a fair number of shekels, the learning curve is crampon-worthy, especially if you’re not by training or instinct an editor.

Then there’s iMovie ’11. For years, evolving and devolving versions of iMovie came with every Mac I bought. After using it a few times I grew to hate it, because it was so mean-spirited. For one thing—and it’s a real deal-breaker—anybody who’s edited professionally can’t live without frame-accurate editing, especially audio editing. But trying to edit a simple conversation in old versions of iMovie would have made even Job say this is too much to bear.

Then I heard that the latest version, iMovie ’11, is way different. I read that a newbie can learn enough quickly to make a pretty slick vacation movie, while the journeyman can unlock some pretty cool advanced features. I went to Apple’s iMovie webpage and started exploring, and was bowled over … especially when I found out I could download it for a mere 15 bucks!

I’d been meaning to learn iMovie for a couple of months, mostly because a guy like me who purports to know something about making online videos ought to be familiar with this common app. The opportunity came when my daughter, Lily, who is an actress and writer, wanted to make a new demo reel. Before she arrived with her footage, I played with the app, checking out basic and advanced features.

The features are impressive–too many to go into here–but one of the very best seems utterly boring yet is worth mentioning here: Help. That’s right, Help. Just choose Help from the menu and you get two buttons:iMovie Help buttons

cover of "iMovie '11 The Missing Manual"If you click on “Get Started,”  you access a bunch of lessons that have lots of advice, videos, etc. If you click on “Browse Help,” you access a treasure trove of tutorials. They start out with basic clues, but you can tap a flock of disclose triangles to reveal deeper levels of information. As I tried figuring out how to do things I was used to from Final Cut Pro, the Help feature was invaluable. (If you want to steep yourself in a myriad of iMovie details, including a ton of stuff that’s not available through Help, you can always shell out a few dollars for iMovie ’11 and iDVD: The Missing Manual, which is terrific. Ironically, the book costs more than the app itself!)

frame from "Instructions Not Included"Full disclosure: Lily–that’s my daughter’s name–and I resorted to Final Cut Pro to edit  one of the elements of her demo, “Instructions Not Included.” That was really complex, requiring lip-syncing audio from one take to video from another take, etc., etc., etc.

frame from "The Scene"But we put all the clips together in iMovie ’11. Not only did we edit clips down, we also added music and tweaked the audio and video. For example, the only version of a clip called “The Scene” we had was very, very low resolution. Not only that, the exposures were all over the place, and the audio levels (because the mike was attached to the camera, which you should avoid whenever you can) varied from thunderous to almost inaudible.

Pic of "black label" burger at Crow Bar in Corona del MarNow, of course iMovie’s video and audio correcting tools aren’t as sophisticated as Avid’s or Final Cut Pro’s, but they’re pretty impressive. And I was pretty impressed, having paid (as I keep saying in different ways) less than the $19. cost of a “black label” burger at The Crow Bar. (Then again, that burger may have the same reward-to-cost ratio as iMovie ’11.)

I could go into more detail about all the goodies iMovie ’11 offers, but you’ll have more fun if you slide over to Apple’s website and watch their iMovie ’11 pitch video. After all, what is more beguiling than an Apple pitch video?

Finally, if you’d like to see Lily’s demo, just click on the player below. As always, your comments on this post are welcome.

How to heat up climate change videos.

Picture of earth showing bands of different temperatures.

A triple-threat disaster–earthquake, tsunami, and nuke threat–hits Japan. The Middle East and North Africa start exploding. Still, the paramount issue (IMHO) remains climate change. Virtually all the science says disaster is looming that could make a 9.0 earthquake seem almost trivial in terms of consequences.

Of course, that’s not an opinion you’re likely to hear from folks like Senator James M. Inhofe, who famously called the threat of catastrophic global warming the “greatest hoax ever perpetrated on the American people.” Inhofe and millions of others insist that the science is biased, shoddy or inconclusive.

This blog post is not the place to debate the plausibility of disastrous climate change. For today at least, let’s assume that climate change is arriving on our doorstep. Now, as makers of online videos, what can we do to help scientists, government officials and other influencers carry out their mission to slam on the brakes?

Camera lens, with photographer in backgroundSome weeks ago, I asked myself that question. I realized that, as a video guy, the issue wasn’t so much climate change as climate change communication. The facts are clear–or clear enough–but our leaders are fiddling while the planet is smoldering because … well, because of a massive failure to communicate. (Yes, I know that our species’ brains have a hard time dealing with threats that seem distant in time. But we can’t wait for our beleaguered  gray matter to evolve further. So all we can do is communicate better.)

I googled “climate change communication” … and found–surprise!–that I wasn’t the only one thinking about this issue. In fact, George Mason University has a Center for Climate Change Communication and there’s a Yale Forum on Climate Change & the Media.

Originally, I wanted this post to be about my analysis of online climate change videos. When I started looking for those videos, I found someone had beaten me to the punch. Her name is Sara Peach, and she describes herself on her Twitter page as an “environmental journalist and multimedia producer.” She has a bunch of posts on the Yale forum website that sample and analyze videos. She told me her favorite is the one called Climate Change Web Videos: Advocacy Edition.

Since she’s mulled over the failures and successes of these videos for far longer than I have, I wanted to hear what she has to say on the subject. So yesterday, Sara and I talked via a Skype videochat (which she recorded with Call Recorder and sent to me). Here are a few bites I’ve excerpted.

First, I wanted to learn how she’s dealt with the preaching-to-the-choir quandary. Most people who flock to see films like An Inconvenient Truth don’t need to see them, because they’re already convinced. And the people who most need to be convinced will avoid those docs like the plague. Sara replies that there’s plenty of opportunity to reach out to people who fall between these two camps. (In her description, she draws on the Global Warming’s Six Americas analysis developed by Anthony Leiserowitz, director of the Yale Project on Climate Change.)

Because our beady little brains can’t fathom distant disasters, Sara advises videomakers to bring things closer to home. No shots of polar bears, unless your viewers live north of the Arctic Circle. Audiences need to be able to relate to your content. Fortunately (really, unfortunately) there’s already plenty of evidence of climate change for you to draw upon.

You might think of climate change as abstract and therefore boring. Sara Peach sure doesn’t: “Climate change is a great issue to report on, because it draws on law, it draws on economics, as well as science. And so there are always very interesting things to report on. It’s very rewarding to bring together all these intertwining issues.” However, she acknowledges that making these videos can be very challenging.

Thanks, Sara, for doing my research for me. It was terrific talking with you and benefiting from your experience. May climate change communication succeed in helping our leaders, and the rest of us, do what we all need to do … now!

Your comments, as always, are welcome.

Six things I learned on my last TV show

In November, Powderhouse, a hot production company where I’d produced some TV shows a while back, called me and asked if I’d like to produce a quickie series of shows for Plum, a “multi-platform lifestyle network.” By “quickie,” I mean really rapid-fire — the first shoot day would be after I’d put in only 5 days on the job.

I said yes, and the whirlwind revved up. Welcome, Ron, to “Masters of Innovation,” a series about cutting-edge technology and how it’s going to affect our lives.

Even if you’re a veteran of the biz, you can learn a lot on any new assignment, especially if the calendar pages are flipping by so fast there’s no time for mistakes. Here are six things I learned — or re-learned — from about two months on the series. I’m telling you about them because they’ll be relevant if you want to make better online videos.

1) Every member of the team is key. Of course the host is key, because he or she is so visible — every instant of performance is subject to scrutiny. Fortunately, Jim Brasher loved the subject of the shows and really came through for us. But my point here is that  Steve Barker, the assistant editor, was also totally crucial; if he hadn’t performed way beyond his job description, we all would have been in trouble.

2) Organize, then organize some more. In video production, things will go wrong — a missed flight, an equipment breakdown. Since some things are beyond your control, it’s important to have everything you can control be nailed down properly. Do you have all of tomorrow’s interviewees’ cellphone numbers as well as their office numbers? Does your sound recordist know the best place to park? Luckily, associate producer Jessie Ward was even more compulsive about these details than I was.

closeup of my story notes3) Never lose sight of the story. Before each day’s shoot I made sure to list all the story elements I wanted to capture on tape. While filming, I kept consulting this crib sheet and scribbling more notes about things I wanted to shoot.

Tod Machover demoing "Chandelier"4) They’re called movies because they move. This may seem obvious, but it’s not. On “Masters of Innovation,” Jim interviewed a whole bunch of people, many of whom did demos — showing him everything from snake-like robots to iPad apps. When we started editing, we saw that there was often too much static talking before they dove into the action of the demo. That was boring. So, we moved the demos as close to the top of the story as we could. A lot of the palaver just disappeared. Much more fun to watch!

Close-up of small soccer-playing robot5) Remember the close-ups. I say this, because we didn’t, at least not on Day One. Sure, we shot some close-ups, but we were constantly rushing and we didn’t get enough, and the editors found their hands tied by this shortfall. Mercifully, we were able to go back and film the missing shots … and we made sure to get plenty from then on.

6) Stock footage and stills can save your story. Maybe you can be too rich or too thin, but you can never have too much B-roll. The lifeblood of video storytelling is B-roll, but sometimes there’s just not much to shoot, or you don’t have time or budget to shoot enough. That’s where stock footage and stills can make the difference between dull and delightful. On “Masters of Innovation,” we had a minuscule budget for stock, but some of the labs where we shot had produced their own videos and photos. We begged them for every bit of relevant footage, and bought a few shots where there was no other option. I could hardly believe how much of a difference adding this material made. On your next shoot, maybe the folks you’re filming have snapshots, videos or graphics they’ll let you use. (Make sure they have the rights to whatever they give you. You don’t want to use pirated stuff!)

I hope I’ve piqued your curiosity about the shows themselves. You can watch any of the four episodes of “Masters of Innovation” online if you click on the title screen below.

Aristotle & your online video

Yesterday, I watched a video online that reminded me of Aristotle. No, not the guy with the big yacht who put the “O” in “Jackie O.” The other guy, who spouted tons of wisdom and even taught Alexander the Great a trick or two. This Athenian social media maven came up with the phrase that’s usually rendered in English as “Well begun is half done.”

His message: Don’t begin your online video with stuff that’s gonna drive away the very people you’re trying to reach in the first few seconds!

Got it? Now, here’s the “tease” of the video I watched yesterday, the opening 15 seconds of a two-minute piece by the very worthy organization Save the Children. Be forewarned–some images are hard to take …

The heavy artillery of the first shot doesn’t get to me, but the flies on the baby’s face are heartbreaking. Human psychology (mine at least) being what it is, a feeling of disgust at the flies trumps empathy for the child. If you came across this video on your own, would you continue watching?

Lottery of Life "wheel of fortunes"It’s a shame, because the later parts of the video are far from a turnoff. They introduce a very cool–very imaginative and very worthwhile–Save the Children project called The Lottery of Life.

You can “play” the Lottery of Life on its own website. You spin a wheel of fortune to get a chance to start your life over in a location chosen by chance. For me, the wheel stopped in India, and I learned I would have a 39% chance of growing up illiterate … that there’s a lot of child labor … and a huge number of child marriages. (Glad I was born in Manhattan!)

The Lottery of Life is social networked up to its eyeballs, because Save the Children wants to spread the world about improving the lot of kids around the world.

My point today is not about the planet’s children, who are, of course, way more important than your videos and mine. It’s simply that we should all pay attention to Aristotle and jump start our videos with scenes that’ll attract folks, not repel them. ‘Nuff said about that. Now you can watch the whole two-minute video below, or simply pop over to The Lottery of Life and spin the wheel!

Your comments, as always, are welcome!

Oh no! … more online video rule-breaking!

I love playing by the rules–they’re so comforting. Over the years I’ve spent mucking about in the swamps of TV and video, I’ve learned a few. And I know they work. But sometimes I find a video that flouts my hard-won rules yet still does what it ought to do. Back in June I wrote about one: To make a remarkable online video, break the rules!

But that was French cinéma, so it doesn’t really count.

About 10 days ago I tripped over another rule-breaker, this one a strictly domestic product. From HubSpot, the emperors of inbound marketing. Playing by the rules, the video should have been short–ideally under two minutes–and it should have conveyed a clearly stated message or two.

No such thing.

This music video comes in at a shade over 4 minutes–nearly certain death in a world where viewers start abandoning videos within mere seconds. (You must read “Understanding Viewer Abandonment Trends in Short-Form Online Video Content.”)

And there’s no analyzable point to the video. It just shows a few dozen HubSpot staffers having some fun. Hey, why don’t you watch a bit of it … and then read on …

Why do I think this is an excellent corporate online video? Because, instead of trumpeting a predictable HubSpot message, like “3,000+ businesses use our inbound marketing software to grow traffic, leads and sales,” it skips over the intellectual, informational level altogether. The lyrics aren’t relevant; in fact, you can get what this video is about by–surprise!–muting the sound altogether. Then you can see the energy and enthusiasm of these HubSpotters all the more clearly. Without the distraction of sound, you can look at their very alive faces. These aren’t corporate drones, no doubt about it.

And that gets to you emotionally.

The result is that you have a good feeling about HubSpot. You start to believe that if you handed them a few wrinkled green ones and asked them to lower your cost per lead or increase your organic traffic, they’d do right by you. You assume they would care about you they way they care about their chair dance.

Can I advise you how to make a video like this? Of course not. Because I’d be giving you rules … and rules are the polar opposite of what we’re talking about.

Get naked in your online videos!

Before you wonder: what is this, an episode of Bloggers Gone Wild? let me say that by “naked” I don’t mean ripping off your Calvins. I mean revealing yourself online, not covering up who you really are. If I’m going to spend my semi-precious time on your website, show me your stuff, in sharp focus and without wasteful adornment.

Dan Schawbel with MC Hammer
Dan Schawbel with MC Hammer

I thought about this principle while visiting the website of marketing meteor Dan Schawbel. Even his URL is as naked and plain as can be: That’s appropriate, because he’s the “personal branding guru” who wants to brand and market you as an individual. (Of course, he’ll be thrilled to market your company, too.) Mainly, he’s marketing himself, using his own name as the brand.

On Dan’s homepage, in keeping with today’s proposition that naked is good, there’s not a frill in sight. If you called it homely, you wouldn’t be wrong. But it’s effective, and that’s what counts.

The homepage overflows with success signifiers, from a blurb by über bizwhiz Tom Peters to the brag stat of having over one million results for his name in Google. (I just checked and got “about 65,800 results” for “Dan Schawbel,” but we’re talking effectiveness, not persnickety stuff like accuracy.)

What really works for me, though, are his two homepage videos. They’re not slick, custom made movies. In fact, the first is borrowed from a local Boston TV show interview. Here’s a half-minute clip of Dan explaining what his company, Millennial Branding, does:

I call his description “naked” because it’s utterly simple. It’s clear. It leaves no mystery in its wake. You can stop watching after this brief explanation, or you can take in the rest of the interview if you want rebranding and think he may be the guy to do it for you.

The other video on his homepage shows him speaking to a group at Time Warner. Just watch a bit, then hit “Pause” and read on …

In nine minutes, Dan will give you clue after clue about personal branding. He’s not slick in his presentation. He’s relaxed and plain-spoken, and this adds to his credibility. As a video professional I don’t admire any of the production values, but if I were looking to rebrand myself, I would definitely consider giving Dan a shout.

Maybe I should.

But what you should do is take to heart the message that nakedness is effective. Dan Schawbel is still in his 20s and he has over 90,000 followers on Twitter. He’s on Inc magazine’s “30 under 30” list and has heavyweight corporations as his clients. Naked videos are surely not his only effective marketing tool, but they’re a powerful one … and they can be one of yours, too.

Learn online video storytelling from the master – Ira Glass!

Still too crazy-busy to spend much time blogging, so I decided to turn this post over to a guest auteur, one of the master storytellers of our age, Ira Glass. He needs no introduction, so I won’t introduce him. I’ll simply siphon his 4-part, 17-minute presentation off YouTube and hand it over to you in 4 player windows. The rest is up to you. He’s brilliant, so savor the experience. And while you’re at it, take notes and ponder how his insights apply to your productions.


Part 1

Part 2

Part 3

Part 4

That’s all, folks! Your comments and questions are always welcome.

3 tips from the Old Spice Man for your next online video!

Isaiah Mustafa is the man of the hour. Or he was last week, when nearly a quadrillion people watched his commercials and dozens of quickie videos he and Old Spice’s genius team cranked out.

In case you’ve been off the grid hiking the entire Pacific Crest Trail lately, here’s what one of the most brilliant spots in the history of commercials looks like:

What’s to say? Writers, directors and actors are all tearing up their union cards and becoming game wardens; why go on when you’ll never reach this level of creative cool?!

Despair not. If you make online videos, Isaiah has 3 tips for you that will turbo-charge your next production.

The first is simple: Dare to be different, but keep the core.

A men’s fragrance ad “should” feature an average dude who has no luck with the women until he splashes on the product. Presto, he’s surrounded by beautiful females. You’ve seen variations on this theme a thousand times.

The Old Spice Man catches a cake.What you haven’t seen from the cologne crowd is a guy who would be insufferable were he not self-mocking … said guy log-rolling, walking on water, catching a birthday cake (not difficult for a former NFL wide receiver), jumping gracefully into a hot tub, etc. The deal is that the creative team pared the theme down to its very core–this incredible man uses Old Spice body wash–then took it to crazy heights.

Second tip: Polish your script ’til the shine hurts your eyes.

Catch this prose:

“Hello ladies. How are you? Fantastic! Does your man look like me? No. Can he smell like me? Yes.”

We’re barely 6 seconds into a 30-second spot and already a full commercial’s worth of message has rattled your eardrums: Your man can be an incredible hunk if you get him the long and wide product I’m holding in my hand.

Now, your video may be about fighting terrorists, baking cupcakes or maintaining oral hygiene. You may have constraints where Mr. Mustafa has freedom. Granted. But no matter what, if you’re working from a script, spend all the time you need to get the words right. Read it out loud to yourself, and revise until you like what you’re hearing.

Tip #3: Remember, your on-camera talent is a minor deity.

Maybe not so minor in Old Spice Man’s case, but that’s not the point. Whenever you put someone on camera to be a spokesperson for your company or group, make sure to do right by the talent. It may be the CFO of your corporation, it may be the pastor of your church, it may be a hired actor. Whoever it is, that’s the point person your audience is relating to.

If you’re working with someone whose charisma has gone missing, do the best you can to eke out an acceptable performance. Don’t stint on this. When all else fails, you can cover most of their standups with B-roll (shots of what the talent is talking about).

And if you’re filming someone the camera loves, exploit the hell out of their performance. That’s what Old Spice did with Isaiah Mustafa.

I’ll leave you with one of the quickie videos from last week. You can find more on YouTube’s Old Spice Channel. This one’s a response to a tweet from TV journalist George Stephanopoulos:

Hey Old Spice Man — Political question: President’s lost some female support. How does WH get those women voters back?